CCNP7 Tshoot



Cisco , cursos

Chapter 1 Introduction to Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance


Introduction to Troubleshooting


Defining Troubleshooting

The Value of Structured Troubleshooting

A Structured Approach

  1. Problem Report
  2. Collect Information
  3. Examine Collected Information
  4. Eliminate Potential Causes
  5. Propose an Hypothesis
  6. Verify Hypothesis
  7. Problem Resolution


Popular Troubleshooting Methods


The Top-Down Method

The Bottom-Up Method

The Divide-and-Conquer Method

The Following the Traffic Path Method

The Comparing Configurations Method

The Component Swapping Method

Practice Exercise: Selecting a Troubleshooting Approach


Introduction to Network Maintenance


Defining Network Maintenance

Proactive Versus Reactive Network Maintenance

Well-Known Network Maintenance Models

Example of Adapting a Network Maintenance Model


Common Maintenance Procedures


Routine Maintenance Tasks

Scheduled Maintenance

Managing Network Changes

Maintaining Network Documentation

Restoring Operations After a Failure

Measuring Network Performance


The Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance Relationship


Maintaining Current Network Documentation

Establishing a Baseline


Change Management


Chapter 2 Troubleshooting and Maintenance Tools


The Troubleshooting and Network Maintenance Toolkit


Network Documentation Tools

Basic Tools

            CLI Tools

            GUI Tools

            Recovery Tools

            Logging Tools

            Network Time Protocol as a Tool

Advanced Tools

            Overview of SNMP and NetFlow

            Creating a Baseline with SNMP and NetFlow



Cisco Support Tools


Using Cisco IOS to Verify and Define the Problem






Using Cisco IOS to Collect Information


Filtering the Output of show Commands

Redirecting show Command Output to a File

Troubleshooting Hardware


Collecting Information in Transit


Performing Packet Captures




Using Tools to Document a Network


Chapter 3 Troubleshooting Device Performance


Troubleshooting Switch Performance Issues

Cisco Catalyst Switch Troubleshooting Targets

TCAM Troubleshooting

High CPU Utilization Troubleshooting on a Switch

Troubleshooting Router Performance Issues

Excessive CPU Utilization

Understanding Packet-Switching Modes (Routers and Multilayer


Troubleshooting Packet-Switching Modes

Excessive Memory Utilization


Part II Troubleshooting Cisco Catalyst Switch Features

Chapter 4 Troubleshooting Layer 2 Trunks, VTP, and VLANs


Frame-Forwarding Process

Troubleshooting Trunks


Encapsulation Mismatch

Incompatible Trunking Modes

VTP Domain Name Mismatch

Native VLAN Mismatch

Allowed VLANs


Troubleshooting VTP


Domain Name Mismatch

Version Mismatch

Mode Mismatch

Password Mismatch

Higher Revision Number


Troubleshooting VLANs


Incorrect IP Addressing

Missing VLAN

Incorrect Port Assignment


The MAC Address Table

Layer 2 Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 4-1

Trouble Ticket 4-2


Chapter 5 Troubleshooting STP and Layer 2 EtherChannel

Spanning Tree Protocol Overview


Reviewing STP Operation

            Determining Root Port

            Determining Designated Port

            Determining Nondesignated Port


Collecting Information About an STP Topology


Gathering STP Information

Gathering MSTP Information


STP Troubleshooting Issues


Corruption of a Switch’s MAC Address Table

Broadcast Storms


Troubleshooting STP Features



BPDU Guard

BPDU Filter

Root Guard

Loop Guard


STP Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 5-1

Trouble Ticket 5-2

Trouble Ticket 5-3


Troubleshooting Layer 2 EtherChannel


Reviewing Layer 2 EtherChannel


EtherChannel Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 5-4

Trouble Ticket 5-5


Chapter 6 Troubleshooting Inter-VLAN Routing and Layer 3 EtherChannels 209

Troubleshooting a Router-on-a-Trunk/Stick

Router-on-a-Trunk/Stick Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 6-1

Trouble Ticket 6-2


Troubleshooting Switched Virtual Interfaces


Reviewing SVIs

Troubleshooting SVIs


SVI Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 6-3

Trouble Ticket 6-4


Troubleshooting Routed Ports

Routed Ports Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 6-5


Troubleshooting Layer 3 EtherChannel

Layer 3 EtherChannel Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 6-6


Chapter 7 Troubleshooting Switch Security Features

Troubleshooting Port Security


Common Port Security Issues

            Port Security Configured but Not Enabled

            Static MAC Address Not Configured Correctly

            Maximum Number of MAC Addresses Reached

            Legitimate Users Being Blocked Because of Violation

            Running Configuration Not Saved to Startup Configuration


Port Security Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 7-1


Troubleshooting Spoof-Prevention Features


DHCP Snooping

Dynamic ARP Inspection

IP Source Guard


Spoof-Prevention Features Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 7-2


Troubleshooting Access Control


Protected Ports

Private VLANs



Chapter 8 Troubleshooting First-Hop Redundancy Protocols


Troubleshooting HSRP


Reviewing HSRP

HSRP Converging After a Failure

HSRP Verification and Troubleshooting

            Virtual Router MAC Address

            Interface Tracking

            Verifying First Hop



HSRP Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 8-1

Trouble Ticket 8-2

Trouble Ticket 8-3


Troubleshooting VRRP


Reviewing VRRP

VRRP Verification and Troubleshooting

            Virtual Router MAC Address

            Object Tracking

            Verifying First Hop


VRRP Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 8-4

Trouble Ticket 8-5


Troubleshooting GLBP


Reviewing GLBP

GLBP Verification and Troubleshooting

            Virtual Router MAC Addresses

GLBP Object Tracking

Verifying GLBP First Hop


GLBP Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 8-6

Trouble Ticket 8-7


Comparing HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP


Part III Troubleshooting Router Features

Chapter 9 Troubleshooting IPv4 Addressing and Addressing Technologies


Troubleshooting IPv4 Addressing


IPv4 Addressing Issues

Determining IP Addresses Within a Subnet 1


Troubleshooting DHCP for IPv4


Reviewing DHCP Operations

Potential DHCP Troubleshooting Issues

DHCP Troubleshooting Commands


Troubleshooting NAT


Reviewing NAT

NAT Troubleshooting Issues

NAT Troubleshooting Commands


IPv4 Addressing and Addressing Technologies Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 9-1

Trouble Ticket 9-2

Trouble Ticket 9-3


Chapter 10 Troubleshooting IPv6 Addressing and Addressing Technologies


Troubleshooting IPv6 Addressing


IPv6 Addressing Review

Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement



Troubleshooting IPv6 Address Assignment


Stateless Address Autoconfiguration/SLAAC

Stateful DHCPv6

Stateless DHCPv6

DHCPv6 Operation

DHCPv6 Relay Agent


IPv6 Addressing Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 10-1

Trouble Ticket 10-2


Chapter 11 Troubleshooting IPv4 and IPv6 ACLs and Prefix Lists


Troubleshooting IPv4 ACLs


Reading an IPv4 ACL

Using an IPv4 ACL for Filtering

Using a Time-Based IPv4 ACL


IPv4 ACL Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 11-1


Troubleshooting IPv6 ACLs


Reading an IPv6 ACL

Using an IPv6 ACL for Filtering


IPv6 ACL Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 11-2


Troubleshooting Prefix Lists


Reading a Prefix List

Prefix List Processing


Prefix List Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 11-3


Chapter 12 Troubleshooting Basic IPv4/IPv6 Routing and GRE Tunnels


Packet-Forwarding Process


Reviewing Layer 3 Packet-Forwarding Process

Troubleshooting the Packet-Forwarding Process


Troubleshooting Routing Information Sources


Data Structures and the Routing Table

Sources of Route Information


Troubleshooting Static Routes


IPv4 Static Routes

IPv6 Static Routes


Static Routing Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 12-1

Trouble Ticket 12-2


Troubleshooting GRE Tunnels


Chapter 13 Troubleshooting RIPv2 and RIPng


Troubleshooting RIPv2


Missing RIPv2 Routes

Interface Is Shut Down

Wrong Subnet

Bad or Missing Network Statement

Passive Interface

Wrong Version

Max Hop Count Exceeded


Route Filtering

Split Horizon


Better Source of Information


Load Sharing

Other RIP Issues

Missing Default Route

Route Summarization


Troubleshooting RIPng

RIPv2 and RIPng Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 13-1

Trouble Ticket 13-2

Trouble Ticket 13-3


Chapter 14 Troubleshooting EIGRP


Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv4


Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv4 Neighbor Adjacencies

Interface Is Down

Mismatched Autonomous System Numbers

Incorrect Network Statement

Mismatched K Values

Passive Interface

Different Subnets




Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv4 Routes

Bad or Missing Network Command

Better Source of Information

Route Filtering

Stub Configuration

Interface Is Shut Down


Troubleshooting Miscellaneous EIGRP for IPv4 Issues

Feasible Successors

Discontiguous Networks and Autosummarization

Route Summarization

Load Balancing


EIGRP for IPv4 Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 14-1

Trouble Ticket 14-2

Trouble Ticket 14-3


Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv6


Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv6 Neighbor Issues

Interface Is Down

Mismatched Autonomous System Numbers

Mismatched K Values

Passive Interfaces

Mismatched Authentication


Interface Not Participating in Routing Process


Troubleshooting EIGRP for IPv6 Route

Interface Not Participating in Routing Process

Better Source of Information

Route Filtering

Stub Configuration



EIGRP for IPv6 Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 14-4


Troubleshooting Named EIGRP Configurations


Named EIGRP Verification Commands


Named EIGRP Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 14-5


Chapter 15 Troubleshooting OSPF


Troubleshooting OSPFv2


Troubleshooting OSPFv2 Neighbor Adjacencies

Interface Is Down

Interface Not Running the OSPF Process

Mismatched Timers

Mismatched Area Numbers

Mismatched Area Type

Different Subnets

Passive Interface

Mismatched Authentication Information


MTU Mismatch

Duplicate Router IDs

Mismatched Network Types

Troubleshooting OSPFv2 Routes

Interface Not Running the OSPF Process

Better Source of Information

Route Filtering

Stub Area Configuration

Interface Is Shut Down

Wrong Designated Router Was Elected

Duplicate Router IDs

Troubleshooting Miscellaneous OSPFv2 Issues

Tracking OSPF Advertisements Through a Network

Route Summarization

Discontiguous Areas

Load Balancing

Default Route


OSPFv2 Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 15-1

Trouble Ticket 15-2

Trouble Ticket 15-3


Troubleshooting OSPFv3 for IPv6


OSPFv3 Troubleshooting Commands


OSPFv3 Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 15-4

Trouble Ticket 15-5


Troubleshoot OSPFv3 Address Families


OSPFv3 Address Family Troubleshooting


OSPFv3 AF Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 15-6


Chapter 16 Troubleshooting Route Maps and Policy-Based Routing


Troubleshooting Route Maps

How to Read a Route Map


Troubleshooting Policy-Based Routing




Policy-Based Routing Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 16-1

Trouble Ticket 16-2

Trouble Ticket 16-3


Chapter 17 Troubleshooting Redistribution


Troubleshooting IPv4 and IPv6 Redistribution


Route Redistribution Overview

Troubleshooting Redistribution into RIP

Troubleshooting Redistribution into EIGRP

Troubleshooting Redistribution into OSPF

Troubleshooting Redistribution into BGP

Troubleshooting Redistribution with Route Maps


Redistribution Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 17-1

Trouble Ticket 17-2

Trouble Ticket 17-3

Trouble Ticket 17-4


Troubleshooting Advanced Redistribution Issues


Troubleshooting Suboptimal Routing Caused by Redistribution

Troubleshooting Routing Loops Caused by Redistribution


Chapter 18 Troubleshooting BGP


Troubleshooting BGP Neighbor Adjacencies


Interface Is Down

Layer 3 Connectivity Is Broken

Path to Neighbor Is via Default Route

Neighbor Does Not Have a Route to the Local Router

Incorrect neighbor Statement

BGP Packets Sourced from Wrong IP Address


TTL of BGP Packet Expires

Mismatched Authentication

Misconfigured Peer Groups



Troubleshooting BGP Routes


Missing or Bad network mask Command

Next-Hop Router Not Reachable

BGP Split-Horizon Rule

Better Source of Information

Route Filtering


Troubleshooting BGP Path Selection


Understanding the Best Path Decision-Making Process

Private Autonomous System Numbers

Using debug Commands


Troubleshooting BGP for IPv6

BGP Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 18-1

Trouble Ticket 18-2

Trouble Ticket 18-3


MP-BGP Trouble Tickets

Trouble Ticket 18-4


Part IV Troubleshooting Management

Chapter 19 Troubleshooting Management Protocols and Tools


Management Protocols Troubleshooting


NTP Troubleshooting

Syslog Troubleshooting

SNMP Troubleshooting


Management Tools Troubleshooting


Cisco IOS IPSLA Troubleshooting

Object Tracking Troubleshooting

SPAN and RSPAN Troubleshooting


Management Protocols and Tools Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 19-1


Chapter 20 Troubleshooting Management Access


Console and vty Access Troubleshooting

Console Access Troubleshooting

vty Access Troubleshooting



Password Encryption Levels


Cisco IOS AAA Troubleshooting

Management Access Trouble Tickets


Trouble Ticket 20-1

Trouble Ticket 20-2

Trouble Ticket 20-3


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